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Oilpalm Crop Stage Wise IPM

Management

Activity

Pre-planting

Soils

  • Best-suited soils are moist, well-drained, deep, loamy alluvial soils, rich in organic matter with good water permeability. At least one-meter depth of soil is required. Avoid highly alkaline, highly saline, waterlogged and coastal sandy soils

Variety

  • Tenera is the ruling hybrid and it is a cross between thick-shelled Dura and shell less
  • Pisifera. Tenera has a thin shell, medium to high mesocarp content and high oil content

Nutrients

  • Oil palm seedlings are planted in the main plantation in triangular system in pits of 60 cubic cm size at a spacing of 9 x 9 m. The pits are dug during summer season and kept open for soil solarisation. Pits are filled with a mixture of top soil and FYM. Planting is preferably done at the onset of rains during June-July.
  • Apply nutrients based on soil test report and recommendation for the zone.

Weeds

  • Deep ploughing during summer
  • Ploughing the plantation before planting to destroy existing weeds in the plantation

Nursery/ Seedling

Nutrients

  • For the newly planted crop, the first dose of fertilizer needs to be applied three months after planting. Add 50-100 kg FYM or 100kg green manure per palm along with the second dose of fertilizer application. Five kg neem cake per palm can also be applied. Broadcast the fertilizers around the clean-weeded basin, about 50 cm away from the palm base and incorporate into the soil with the help of fork. Irrigate the palms immediately after fertilizer application.

Weeds

  • Use healthy, certified and weed-free seeds for raising nursery.
  • Keep the Primary Nursery and Secondary Nursery (Poly bags) weed-free during the whole year to obtain the healthy Palm seedlings.
  • For conserving the moisture and weed suppression in the basins, apply coconut husk or paddy husk or saw dust, cut leaves or male inflorescence as mulching.

Anthracnose

Cultural control:

  • Collection and destruction of infected shoots

Planting

 

Common cultural practices:

  • Best season for planting is June-December i.e., during monsoon.
  • In case of planting during summer, adequate irrigation, mulching and growing cover crops like sun hemp in the basin would help in avoiding hot winds during summer.
  • 12 -14 months old healthy seedlings with 1-1.3m height and 13 functional leaves are recommended for planting.
  • While planting, 143 plants per hectare should be maintained with a spacing of 9m x 9m x 9m (triangular planting). Planting should be done in pit size of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm (length, breadth and depth)

Nutrients

Manures and Fertilizers: In general, nutrients are applied as mentioned below;

Age

N

P2O5

K2O

MgSO4

Borax

g/palm/year

First year

400

200

400

125

25

Second year

800

400

800

250

50

Third year onwards

1200

600

1200

500

100

  • Fertilizers should be applied in two equal split doses (in June and September) within 2 m diameter around the palm and forked in. Application of potassium fertilizer may be enhanced depending on the requirement of the palm on soil test basis

Weeds

  • The Palm basins are to be kept clean by regular weeding. For conserving the moisture and weed suppression in the basins, apply Coconut husk or saw dust or paddy husk or cut leaves & male inflorescence of Oil Palm as mulching.
  • In the juvenile phase, grow the region specific recommended intercrops/ cover crops like gourds and other Vegetables, chillies, turmeric, ginger, pineapple, banana, flowers, tobacco etc.

Termites

Cultural control:

  • Locate termite mounds in or near the oil palm nursery or garden and destroy
  • Adoption of plantation sanitation by disposal of organic matter in nursery soil and covering germinating seeds with a layer of river sand
  • Copious irrigation

Spindle bug

Cultural control:

  • Digging and forking of the soil before and after the monsoon will help in eliminating the various developmental stages of the beetle

Biological control:

  • Conserve predators such as wasps, green lacewings, earwigs, ground beetles, rove beetles, spiders, coccinellids, syrphids etc

Mealy bug and Scale

Cultural control:

  • Collection and destruction of infested plant parts
  • Collect planting material from unaffected plantation
  • Insecticidal soap is a safe and effective alternative to conventional insecticides. You can use bleach-free dishwashing liquid (1 and 1/2 teaspoons per one quart of water) in place of commercial insecticide soaps. Homemade control of plant scale can also be achieved with oil spray. Mix two tablespoons of cooking oil and two tablespoons of baby shampoo in one gallon of water. This can also be mixed with one cup of alcohol to help penetrate the insect‟s shell

Biological control:

  • Conservation and augmentation of natural enemies such as ladybird beetle etc
  • For mealybug: Release coccinellid beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10 / tree

Root grub

Cultural control:

  • Fill the seedling bags with the soil free from root grub infestation
  • Exposure of grubs by ploughing or digging the soil during pre and post monsoon periods

Mechanical control:

  • Collection and destruction of beetles during their emergence from the soil in the evening hours
  • Install light traps @ 1 trap/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm

Biological control:

  • Conserve entomopathogenic nematodes such as Heterorhabditis spp. and 23 Steinernema spp.

Basal stem rot

Mechanical control:

  • Plantation Sanitation: Removal and destruction of the dead and diseased palms in order to prevent the spread of the disease
  • Isolation of diseased Palms: The palms in the early or middle stages of the disease should be isolated from the neighboring palms by taking trenches of 1 m deep and 30 cm wide
  • Irrigate the palms at least once in a fortnight during summer months

Biological control:

  • Apply heavy doses of FYM or compost for green manure at 50 Kg/tree/year along with 5 kg of neem cake

Vegetative growth stage and mature palm

Nutrients

  • Four equal split doses of fertilizers are to be applied starting from June/July at three month interval. For the newly planted crop, the first dose of fertilizer needs to be applied three months after planting. Add 50-100 kg FYM or 100kg green manure per palm along with the second dose of fertilizer application. Five kg neem cake/palm can also be applied. Broadcast the fertilizers around the clean-weeded basin, about 50 cm away from the palm base and incorporate into the soil with the help of fork. Irrigate the palms immediately after fertilizer application

Weeds

  • The Palm basins are to be kept clean by regular weeding. For conserving the moisture and weed suppression in the basins, apply Coconut husk or saw dust or paddy husk or cut leaves & male inflorescence of Oil Palm as mulching.
  • Up to the 8 years of planting, grow the region specific recommended intercrops/ cover crops like gourds and other Vegetables, chillies, turmeric, ginger, pineapple, banana, flowers, tobacco etc.
  • In the 8-12 years old oil palm plantations, partially shaded region specific recommended intercrops like Cocoa, Pepper, Heliconia and Ginger lily etc. may be grown between the rows.
  • Whenever intercrop are not grown between the rows slashing and mowing of weed or shallow ploughing of plantation leaving the basin area may be adopted.

Irrigation

  • Oil palm requires sufficient irrigation, as it is a fast growing crop with high productivity and biomass production. Do not grow oil palm if assured and adequate irrigation facility is not available. For grown up yielding palms of 3 years age and above, a minimum of 150 to 200 liters of water per day is required. However, in older plantations during hot summer this quantity may be increased up to 300 lit
  • Basin method of irrigation is to be taken up when irrigation water is not a constraint. Required quantity of water is to be given at 4-5 days interval
  • Drip or Microjet irrigation method is practiced. If
  • land is of undulated terrain

Ablation

  • Ablation is the removal of male and female flowers produced in the early stages of plantation. This enables the plant to gain adequate stem girth, vigour and develop adequate root system. Flowering starts from 14th to 18th month after planting. Start ablation immediately after the appearance of inflorescences on the palms. They can be removed easily by hand pulling or using appropriate tools. Ablation can be extended up to 2-1/2 to 3 years depending upon the plant growth and vigour

Pollination

  • Oil palm is a highly cross-pollinated crop. Wind and insects assist pollination, but wind pollination is not adequate. Effective pollinating insects like Elaeidobius kamerunicus helps in good pollination and fruit set. Release of this weevil after 2-1/2 year of planting is advisable. If the plants are not having good girth and vigour, release the weevils after 3 years

Red palm weevil

Mechanical control:

  • Remove and burn all wilting or damaged palms in coconut gardens to prevent further perpetuation of the pest
  • Avoid injuries on stems of palms as the wounds may serve as oviposition sites for the weevil. Fill all holes in the stem with cement
  • Avoid the cutting of green leaves. If needed, they should be cut about 120 cm away from the stem.
  • Setting up of attractant traps (mud pots) containing sugarcane molasses 2½ kg or toddy 2½ litres + acetic acid 5 ml + yeast 5 g + longitudinally split tender oilpalm stem/logs of green petiole of leaves of 30 numbers in one acre to trap adult red palm weevils in large numbers.
  • Install pheromone trap @1/2 ha

Biological control:

  • Fill the crown and the axils of top most three leaves with a mixture of fine sand and neem seed powder or neem seed kernel powder (2:1) once in three months to prevent the attack of rhinoceros beetle damage in which the red palm weevil lays eggs

Rhinoceros beetle

Mechanical control:

  • Remove and burn all dead coconut trees in the garden (which are likely to serve as breeding ground) to maintain good sanitation
  • plant a cover crop to deter egg laying by females as they do not lay eggs in areas covered by vegetation
  • Collect and destroy the various bio-stages of the beetle from the manure pits (breeding ground of the pest) whenever manure is lifted from the pits.
  • Examine the crowns of tree at every harvest and hook out and kill the adults
  • Set up light traps following the first rains in summer and monsoon 200 period to attract and kill the adult beetles
  • Set up rhinolure pheromone trap @ 1/ac to trap and kill the beetles

Biological control:

  • Soak castor cake at 1 kg in 5 l of water in small mud pots and keep them in the oilpalm gardens to attract and kill the adults
  • Treat the longitudinally split tender coconut stem and green petiole of fronds with fresh toddy and keep them in the garden to attract and trap the beetles
  • For seedlings, apply 3 naphthalene balls/palm weighing 3.5 g each at the base of inter space in leaf sheath in the 3 inner most leaves of the crown once in 45 days
  • Apply mixture of either neem seed powder + sand (1:2) @150 g per palm or neem seed kernel powder + sand (1:2) @150 g per palm in the base of the 3 inner most leaves in the crown

Mealy bug and Scales

  • Same as in planting stage

Nettle caterpillar

Cultural control:

  • Cutting and burning the badly affected and dried leaves

Case worm

Cultural control:

  • Cutting and burning affected and dried leaves

Biological control:

  • Conservation and augmentation of parasitoids such as Pediobius anomalus

Mites

Biological control:

  • Conservation and augmentation of predatory mites

Termites

  • Same as planting stage

Stem wet rot

Mechanical control:

  • Improvement in agronomic practices, providing drainage, avoid flooding of the plantation etc
  • Adequate fertilization.
  • Scoop out the diseased tissue with a portion of healthy tissues, burn the exposed tissue and apply molten coal tar

Bud rot

Cultural control:

  • Remove and burn badly affected trees which are beyond recovery
  • If diseases is detected in early stage, remove the infected tissue thoroughly by cutting the infected spindle along with two leaves surrounding it

Bunch rot

Cultural control:

  • Sanitation: Before on-set of monsoon, crown cleaning by means of removing the dead inflorescences, bunch stalks, aborted bunches etc. will help in reducing the inoculums buildup and harbouring of pathogen

Leaf spot

Cultural control:

  • Severely diseased palm, should be removed from plantation and destroyed.
  • Palms should be planted with adequate spacing to allow air to circulate between trees.
  • Remove weeds from around palms

Bacterial bud rot/Spear rot

Cultural control:

  • Oil palm plant varieties with resistance to the bacteria.
  • Rotting tissue on spear leaves should be removed to prevent bacteria spreading to buds.

Common mynah

Cultural control:

  • Cover the fruit bunches with wire mesh or coconut or oil palm leaves after 150 days of fruit set. (Twenty two gauge galvanized iron wire mesh (60 x 90 cm) (the size depending upon the fruit bunches) used to cover the Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) atleast of 3-4 times. At least 10 cm gap between the net and the fruit bunch)
  • Use bird scare devices

Wild boar

Cultural control:

  • Wild boar scaring device may be kept

Bunch failure

Cultural control:

  • The situation can be improved by assisted pollination as well as by adopting hygienic measures like removal of infected bunches and dry male inflorescence

 



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