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Blackgram & Greengram: Crop Stage-wise IPM

Blackgram & Greengram: Crop Stage-wise IPM

Management Activity

Pre- sowing*



Common cultural practices:
• Deep ploughing of fields during summer
• After summer ploughing field is left for solarization.
• Timely sowing should be done
• Field sanitation, rogueing
• Destroy the alternate host plants
• Apply manures and fertilizers as per soil test recommendations
• Sow the ecological engineering plants
• Rotate the crop with a non-host cereal crop, cucurbit, or cruciferous vegetable
• Sow/plant sorghum/maize/bajra in 4 rows all around blackgram and greengram crop as a guard/barier crop
Nutrients • Apply well decomposed FYM @ 4 t/acre or Vermicompost @ 2 t/acre treated with Trichoderma 2-3 weeks before sowing..
Weeds • At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique i.e. pre sowing irrigation followed by shallow tillage to minimize the weeds menace in field.
Soil borne pathogens nematodes, resting stage of insects Cultural control:
• For anthracnose and BLB hot water treatment of seeds at 52o C for 10 min.
• Growing intercrops such as pigeonpea, marigold and castor for the control of blister beetle, whitefly and leaf hoppers.
Biological control:
• Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride1% WP @ 4g per Kg seeds

Sowing*


Common cultural practices:
• Use tolerant/ resistant varieties
• Select healthy, certified, and weed seed free seeds
Nutrients • Seed treatment should be done with, Trichoderma spp. (8-10 g/Kg seed) and Rhizobium spp., AMF/PSB cultures each @ 30 g/Kg seed.
• Fertilizers should be applied on soil test basis. Generally, it is recommended to apply 10 to 12 Kg N, 20 to 30 Kg P2O5 and 12 to 18 Kg K2O per acre as basal dose.
• In sulphur and zinc deficiency areas, apply sulphur @ 10-12 Kg/acre and zinc sulphate @ 10 Kg/acre in soil at the time of sowing
Weeds • Line sowing should be done to facilitate inter-cultural operations.
• Optimum plant population should be maintained from beginning to minimize the weed competition.

Vegetative stage*


Common cultural practices:
• Collect and destroy crop debris
• Avoid water logging
• Judicious use of fertilizers
• Avoid any stress to the crop as much as possible
• Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed
Common mechanical practices:
• Collect and destroy disease infected and insect infested plant parts
• Collect and destroy eggs and early stage larvae
• Handpick the older larvae during early stages
• Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are found on stem and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
• Use yellow/blue pan water/ sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
• Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
• Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
• Erect of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
• Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
Common biological practices:
• Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
• Augmentative release of natural enemies
Nutrients • Correct micronutrient deficiency if any in standing crop.
Weeds • Keep field boundary and bunds free from weeds.
• The crop field should be weed free initially for 3-4 weeks by following timely hoeing and weeding by power hand tiller and/or hand tools at 20 and 35 days after sowing.
• Mulches like straw hay, plastic, etc. should be used in between the rows to suppress the weed growth.
• If mechanical/physical control measures are not adopted apply fenoxaprop-pethyl 9.3% w/w EC (9% w/v) @ 250-300 ml/acre in 150 to 160 l of water at 15-20 DAS or propaquizafop 10% EC @ 300-400 ml/acre in 200 to 300 l of water or quizalofop-ethyl 5% EC @ 300-400 ml/acre in 200 l of water as per infestation of the specific weed species.
Grass blue butterfly • See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Biological control:
• Release egg parasitoid Trichogramma spp. at weekly intervals @0.6 lakh/acre/ week for four times.
Bihar hairy caterpillar Cultural control:
• Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid-season drought to prevent pre-harvest infestation.
Mechanical control:
• Dig the trenches of 1 inch depth between the fields & dust the trenches to kill the larvae in pits.
Chemical control:
• Spray quinalphos 25% EC 600ml diluted in 200-400 l of water/acre (blackgram)
• Spray phenthoate 50% EC 320 ml diluted in 200-400 l of water/acre (blackgram & greengram)
Stem fly • See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Chemical control:
• Phorate10%CG@4 Kg/acre (blackgram & greengram)
Pod weevil • See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Bean aphid Cultural control:
• Abiotic factors such as rain and wind reduce aphid infestations.
• Prune curled leaves or new shoots and dispose them.
Leaf hopper Biological control:
• Spray neem oil @ 5 ml/l
Pod fly • See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Whitefly Chemical control:
• Phorate10%CG @4Kg/acre (Blackgram)
Thrips • See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Blister beetle • See the common cultural and biological practices
White grub** Cultural control:
• See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Biological control
• Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be sprayed at the rate of 100 million nematodes per acre, in root grub infested blackgram and grenngram fields
Red spider mite** Cultural control:
• Provide adequate irrigation
• Sprays of water or soap water
Biological control:
• Spray neem or pongamia soap @ 1% on lower surface thoroughly.
Anthracnose, bacterial leaf blight, Cercospora leaf spot Cultural control:
• Early planting i.e. immediately after onset of monsoon.
• Grow crop on bower system to avoid soil contact.
• Maintain proper drainage in the field.
Powdery mildew Cultural control:
• Bower system (maintain gapping) of cropping reduces the disease incidence.
Chemical control:
• Spray penconazole 10% EC@ 20ml diluted in 200 l of water/acre (blackgram & greengram)
Rust Cultural control:
• Volunteer plants reduce the disease severity
Root rot, Macrophomina blight Cultural control:
• Plant in well-draining soils.
• Prepare seed beds to enhance rapid germination
• Proper irrigation is provided to prevent flooding and saturated soil conditions.
• Soil amendment with farm yard manure @ 5 tonnes/acre

Yellow mosaic virus


Leaf crinkle virus
Flowering
Blue butterfly, grass blue butterfly, Bihar hairy caterpillar, pod weevil, bean aphid, pod fly, whitefly, thrips, anthracnose, bacterial leaf blight, Cercospora leaf spot, powdery mildew, rust, yellow mosaic virus, leaf crinkle virus • Same as in vegetative stage
Root rot, Macrophomina blight • Same as in sowing/seedling stage
Reproductive (pod development)
Nutrients • Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest
Weeds • Remove left over weeds to prevent weed seed spread in field.
Gram pod borer, spotted pod borer, spiny pod borer Cultural control:
• Their flowers shall attract oviposition sites which can be plucked and disposed.
• Ridge planting + cover crops like soybean, cowpea, moth bean.
Chemical control:
• Spray chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 40 ml in 200 l of water/ acre (blackgram)
• Spray lufenuron 5.4% EC @ 240 ml in 200 l of water/ acre (blackgram)
• Spray methyl parathion 2% DP @ 10 Kg in 10000 l of water/acre (blackgram & greengram)
• Spray monocrotophos 36% SL @ 250 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre (blackgram & greengram)
• Spray phenthoate 50% EC @ 800 ml in 200-400 l of water/ acre (blackgram & greengram)
• Spray thiodicarb 75% WP @ 250-300 g in 150-200 l of water/ acre (blackgram)
• Spray fl ubendiamide 39.35 % M/M SC @ 40ml in 200 l of water/acre (blackgram)
Blue butterfly, grass blue butterfly, Bihar hairy caterpillar, pod weevil, bean aphid, pod fly, whitefly, thrips, anthracnose, bacterial leaf blight, Cercospora leaf spot, powdery mildew, rust, yellow mosaic virus, leaf crinkle virus • Same as in vegetative stage
Root rot, Macrophomina blight • Same as in sowing/seedling stage
Note: The pesticide dosages and spray fluid volumes are based on high volume sprayer.
*Apply Trichoderma viride/harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed/seedling/planting material treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
** Pests of regional significance

 

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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