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Pea Crop Stage Wise IPM

Management

Activity

Pre-sowing

 

Common cultural practices:

  • Deep ploughing of fields during summer. Three summer ploughings at 10 days interval reduces pests population.
  • Timely sowing should be done.
  • Field sanitation, rogueing
  • Destroy the alternate host plants
  • Apply manures and fertilizers as per soil test recommendations.
  • Grow the attractant, repellent, and trap crops around the field bunds.
  • Growing tomato or marigold as a trap crop for the management of leaf miner.
  • Plant tall border crops like maize, sorghum for the management of aphids.
  • Crop rotation with non-host crops.

Nutrients

  • Fertilizers should be applied on the basis of soil test report and recommendations for particular agro-climatic zone.
  • Apply well decomposed FYM @ 8-10 t per acre treated with Trichoderma at the time of field preparation

Weeds

  • Summer ploughing should be done and field is left for 15 days.
  • Solarisation can be done after giving light irrigation in morning and then covering the field by transparent polyethylene sheets for 25 days so that the weed seeds are killed due to heat effect.
  • At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique i.e. pre sowing irrigation followed by shallow tillage to minimize the weeds menace in field.

Fungal pathogens, nematodes, and resting stages of insects

Cultural control:

  • Deep summer ploughing of fields to control nematodes and exposes dormant stages (pupa and larva) of insect pest and subsequently reduces their initial population build up
  • Soil solarization: Cover the beds with transparent polythene sheet of 100 gauge thickness for three weeks before sowing for soil solarization which will help in reducing the soil-borne pests including weeds.

Seed Sowing

Nutrients

  • Seed treatment should be done with Rhizobium cultures @ 250 g/acre.
  • Apply starter dose of 10 Kg of Nitrogen along with 28 Kg P2O5 and 25 Kg K2O/acre at the time of sowing.

Weeds

Cultural control:

  • Always use certified and weed free seeds.
  • Timely sowing should be done.
  • Line sowing should be done to facilitate inter-culture operations.
  • Plant population should be maintained to its optimum right from its beginning to minimize the crop weed competition.

Chemical control:

  • Apply linuron 50% WP @ 0.5 to 0.8 Kg per acre in 200 l of water as pre emergence to control Anagallis arvensis, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium murale, Portulaca oleracea, Mielilotus indica, Melilotus alba, Medicago denticulate, Fumeria parviflora, Echinochloa crusgalli, Poa annua

Soil-borne pathogens, nematodes, and resting stages of insects

  • Use resistant/tolerant varieties.
  • Avoid late sowing of the crop.

Vegetative stage

 

Common cultural practices:

  • Collect and destroy diseased and insect infected plant parts.
  • Provide irrigation at critical stages of the crop
  • Avoid water stagnation.
  • Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed

Common mechanical practices:

  • Collection and destruction of eggs and early stage larvae
  • Handpick the older larvae during early stages
  • The infested pods may be collected and destroyed
  • Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the pupae which are found on leaves and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
  • Use yellow sticky traps for aphids @ 4-5 trap/acre.
  • Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6pm and 10 pm
  • Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
  • Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
  • Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm

Common biological practices:

  • Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
  • Augmentative release of natural enemies

Nutrients:

  • In case of stunted/ slow crop growth, use top dressing of N fertilizers @ 5-10 Kg per acre.
  • Correct micronutrient deficiency if any in standing crop

Weeds:

  • Legumes suffer severe competition with weeds in initial stages and 30-45 days is the critical period of weed crop competition
  • One to two hands weeding at 25-30 days and/ or 45 days after sowing should be done as per the requirement.

Pea pod borer

Cultural control:

  • Deep ploughing is likely to kill the diapausing pupae.
  • Hand picking of the caterpillar and pupae during the early stages of infestation reduces the pest damage.

Biological control:

  • Follow common biological practices

Chemical control:

  • Malathion 50%EC @ 600 ml in 200- 400 l water per acre.

Stem fly

Cultural control:

  • Mulching with the rice straw.
  • Apply balanced fertilizers having adequate N and P to promote better plant growth

Biological control:

  • Follow common biological practices

Chemical control:

  • Carbofuran 3% CG @ 400 g per acre

Pea aphid

Cultural control:

  • Judicious use of nitrogenous fertilizers
  • Regular field monitoring for pest & defender population, barrier crops like mustard crop around the field.
  • Plant tall border crops like maize, sorghum or millet to reduce pest population.

Biological control:

  • Release 1st instar larvae of green lacewing (Chrysoperla zastrow sillemi) @ 4000/acre
  • Follow common biological practices

Chemical control:

  • Carbofuran 3% CG @ 400 g per acre

Leaf miner

Cultural control:

  • Remove and destroy the infested leaves identified by the mines and blotches.
  • Use yellow sticky traps/ cards for leaf miners adult fly.

Biological control:

  • Follow common biological practices

Powdery mildew

Cultural control:

  • Use resistant varieties.
  • Burn infected pea stubble soon after harvest where practicable.
  • Avoid sowing field pea crops adjacent to last season’s stubble.
  • Control volunteer field peas which can harbour disease.
  • Adopt bower system.

Chemical control:

  • Benomyl 50 % WP @ 80g in 240 l water per acre or carbendazim 50% WP@ 100g in 240 l water per acre or dinocap 48% EC @ 120g in 300 l water per acre or Fenarimol 12% EC @ 0.04% (40 ml/100 lts of water) as required depending on stage of crop. Second spray after 15 days of interval or sulphur 40% WP 2.26- 3.00 Kg in 300- 400 l of water per acre or sulphur 52% SC 800 ml in 120- 160 l of water per acre or Sulphur 80% WG @ 750 gm – 1.0 Kg in in 300- 400 l water per acre or sulphur 85%DP @ 6 – 8 Kg per acre or triadimefon 25% WP @ 0.1 % in 300 l water per acre. Second spray after 25 days of interval

Rust

Cultural control:

  • Destroy all diseased plant debris after harvest.
  • Follow suitable crop rotation with non-leguminous crops.
  • Mixed cropping.

Chemical control:

  • Sulphur 80% WP @ 1.252 Kg in 300- 400 l water per acre or .sulphur85%DP @ 6 – 8 Kg per acre or triadimefon 25% WP @ 0.1 % in 300 l water per acre. Second spray after 25 days of interval.

Downy mildew

Cultural control:

  • The diseased plants should be removed and burnt soon after detecting in the field.

Ascochyta blight

Cultural control:

  • Plantation of tall plant crop as a barrier for air borne inoculum

White rot

Cultural control:

  • Follow common cultural practices

Root rot

Cultural control:

  • Keep wider spacing.
  • Maintain irrigation
  • Follow common cultural practices

Fusarium wilt

Cultural control:

  • Follow common cultural practices

Pea Weevil/ bruchid

Cultural control:

  • Early harvest of peas also reduces pod shatter and pea splitting losses.
  • Cut the volunteer and weed plant.
  • Proper sanitation of godown store house.
  • Disinfect the gunny bags that carry the pea grains.

Biological control:

  • Follow common biological practices

Reproductive stage

Nutrient

  • Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest.

Weed

  • Remove left over weeds before shedding of their weed seeds to prevent further spread

Diseases & pests

  • Same as in vegetative stage

Source: NIPHM, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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