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Cabbage and Cauliflower Crop stage-wise IPM

Management

Activities

Pre-sowing

Nutrients

  • Add well rotten farm yard manure (FYM) @ 8- 10 t/acre or vermicompost @ 5 t/ acre treated with Trichoderma spp. and /or Pseudomonas sp @ 2 kg/acre. Incorporate at the time of field preparation 1 week (vermicompost) or 2 to 3 weeks (FYM) before transplanting.

Weeds

  • At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique to minimize the weeds menace in field.
  • Keep the nursery weed free by hand pulling of the weeds.
  • Black plastic mulch prevents entry of light, which restricts germination of weed seeds and growth.

Resting stages of pests and nematodes

  • Deep summer ploughing
  • Soil solarization: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm) thickness for three weeks before sowing for soil solarization which will help in reducing the soil borne pests.
  • Apply neem cake @ 100 kg/acre at the time of transplanting for reducing nematodes and borer damage.
  • In nematode severe area apply carbofuran 3% CG @ 20,000 g/acre

DBM

Cultural control:

  • Removal and destruction of plant remnants, stubbles, debris after harvest and ploughing the field.
  • Trap crop: Sowing 2 rows of bold seeded mustard as a trap crop for every 25 rows of cabbage to attract moths to mustard. Plant the first row 12 days before transplanting and the second row 25 days after transplanting
  • Grow intercrops such as tomato, garlic, coriander and carrot in alternate rows with cabbage

Seed Sowing/ Transplanting stage

Nutrients

  • Before sowing, soil testing should be done to find out the soil fertility status. Nutrient should be provided as per soil test recommendations.
  • For varieties apply 32 kg N/acre in three equal splits. The first one (33.3%) at the time of transplanting as basal dose.
  • For hybrids apply 48 kg N/acre in three equal splits. The first one (33.3%) at the time of 30 transplanting as basal dose.
  • For varieties apply entire quantity of P and K @ 60 and 40 kg /acre, respectively, at the time of sowing.
  • For hybrids apply entire quantity of P and K @ 90 and 60 kg/acre, respectively, at the time of sowing.
  • Micronutrient deficiency should be corrected by foliar application.
  • Biofertilizers: For seed treatment with Azotobacter and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria (PSB) cultures @ 8-10 g/kg seed
  • For seedling root dip treatment with Azotobacter and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria (PSB) cultures @ 250 g /acre seedlings

Weed management

  • Keep the nursery weed free by hand weeding.
  • Avoid carrying weed seedlings along with cabbage seedlings.

Sowing/Planting

Black rot

Cultural control:

  • Crop sanitation
  • Resistant varieties:
  • Crop rotation for 2-3 years with noncruciferous crops

Damping off

Cultural control:

  • Quality seed and a chemical or heat pasteurized planting medium should be used.
  • Excessive watering and poorly drained areas of field should be avoided
  • Use raised beds: more than 15cm height is better for water drainage or use pro trays for raising seedlings

Chemical control:

  • Soil drench with captan 75% WP @ 1000 g in 400 l of water/acre
  • Treatment with captan 75% WP @ 20-30 g/kg seed.

Alternaria leaf spot

Cultural control:

  • Long rotations (3 years) without crucifer crops or cruciferous weeds such as wild mustard.
  • Plant later plantings upwind of earlier plantings.
  • Allow for good air circulation (i.e. wide spacings, rows parallel to prevailing winds, not close to hedgerows).

Chemical control:

  • Spray zineb 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300- 31 400 l of water/acre or mancozeb 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300 l of water/acre

* Applying Trichoderma as seed and nursery treatment and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed, nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).

Vegetative stage

Nutrients

Top Dressing

  • Apply second dose (33.3%) 30 days after transplanting and irrigate the crop immediately after fertilizer application.
  • Micronutrient deficiency should be corrected by foliar spray of particular micronutrient.

Weeds

  • Weeding and hoeing should be done once within 20-25 days after transplanting and second time 45 days after transplanting. Deep hoeing should be avoided.
  • Mulching with black Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) sheets of 30micron thickness by burying both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm will avoid weed growth.

DBM

Cultural control:

  • Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring.

Biological control:

  • Release egg parasitoid, T. chilonis/pretiosum @ 20,000/acre 4-6 times at weekly interval.
  • Release larval parasitoids, Diadegma semiclausm @ 1,00,000/acre (Hills – below 25 –27ºC) or Cotesia plutellae (plains) @ 20,000/acre from 20 days after planting
  • Conserve other parasitoids such as Brachymeria spp., Eriborus spp. etc.
  • Fungal pathogens, for example, Paecilomyces spp. and Zoophthora radican are effective.
  • Foliar spray with 5% NSKE or azadirachtin 0.03% (300 ppm) neem oil based WSP @ 1000-2000 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre

Chemical control:

  • Spray flubendiamide 20% WG @ 15 g in 150 l of water/acre or lufenuron 5.4% EC @ 240 g in 200 l of water/acre or spinosad 2.5% SC @ 240–280 in 200 l of water/acre 32 or indoxacarb 15.8% EC @ 106.4 ml in 200–400 l of water/acre or emamectin benzoate 5% SG @ 60- 80 g in 200 l of water/acre or fipronil 5% SC @ 320–400 ml in 200 l of water/acre. (last spray should be 15 days before harvesting).

Cabbage borer

Cultural control:

  • Collect and destroy caterpillars mechanically in the early stages of attack.

Chemical control:

  • Malathion 50 EC @ 600 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre..

Cabbage leaf webber

Cultural control:

  • Remove and destroy the webbed leaves with caterpillars within.
  • Set up light traps @ 1/acre.

Biological control:

  • Conserve parasitoids such as Cotesia crocidolomiae etc.

Cabbage Aphid

Cultural Control:

  • Install yellow sticky traps, yellow water pan traps @ 12/acre to monitor alates (winged adult).

Biological control:

  • Conserve parasitoids such as Aphidius colemani (adult and nymph), Diaeretiella spp. (adult and nymph), Aphelinus spp. (adult and nymph) etc.
  • Conserve predators such wasps, green lacewings, earwigs, ground beetles, rove beetles, spiders etc.

Chemical control:

  • Foliar spray with dimethoate 30% EC @ 264 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or fenvalerate 20% EC @ 120-150 ml in 240- 300 l of water/acre or phosalone 35% EC @ 571 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or acetamiprid 20 % SP @ 300 ml in 200-240 l of water/acre.

Tobacco caterpillar

Cultural control:

  • Field sanitation and rouging
  • Repellant plants: Ocimum/Basil
  • Setting up light traps for adults @ 1/acre.
  • Erecting of bird perches for encouraging predatory birds such as mynah, drongo etc.
  • Use of ovipositional trap crops such as 33 castor @ 250 plants/acre and collection of larvae from flowers
  • Installing pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring insect activity

Biological control:

  • Spray NSKE 5% against eggs and first instar larvae.
  • Spray NPV @ 40LE/ac in combination with jaggery 1 kg, sandovit 100 ml or Robin Blue 50 g thrice at 10-15 days interval on observing the eggs or first instar larvae in the evening hours.
  • Conserve parasitoids such as Trichogramma chilonis (egg), Tetrastichus spp. (egg), Telenomus spp. (egg), Carcelia spp. (larval-pupal), Campoletis chlorideae (larval) etc.
  • Conserve predators such as lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea), coccinellids, king crow, dragonfly, spider, robber fly, reduviid bug, praying mantis, fire ants etc.

Chemical control:

  • Spray trichlorfon 5% GR @ 300 g/acre or thiodicarb 5% GR @ 300g/acre or chlorfluazuron 5.4% EC @ 600 ml in 200 l of water/acre

Cabaage butterfly

Cultural control:

  • Fine-mesh netting in nursery will stop butterflies from reaching the crop and lay eggs. Collect and destroy eggs or caterpillars mechanically by hand- usually on the underside of the leaves.
  • Intercropping cabbages with Nasturtium results in fewer eggs laid on cabbage by the butterflies.

Biological control:

  • Release Trichogramma spp.
  • Erect bird perche
  • Conserve parasitoids such as Cotesia glomeratus (larval), Pteromalus puparum (larval) etc.

Club rot diseases

Cultural control:

  • Use disease free seedlings
  • A pH slightly above neutral (usually about pH 7.2) helps to minimize disease
  • Add hydrated lime to soil to increase pH to 7.2 34 ( 6 weeks before planting @ 1.5 t/ac)
  • Avoid excess irrigation

Downy mildew

Cultural control:

  • Destruction of infected plant debris
  • Avoid of thick sowing and excessive moist conditions
  • Use a 3- year rotation without cruciferous crops
  • Avoid overhead irrigation
  • Allow for good air movement (i.e. wide spacing, rows parallel to prevailing winds, not close to hedgerows)

Powdery mildew

Cultural control:

  • Destruction of infected plant debris
  • Maintain proper spacing

White rot

Cultural control:

  • Sanitary measures and destruction of weeds
  • Crop rotation with non-cruciferous crops

Black rot

  • Same as in seedling stage

Alternaria leaf spot

  • Same as in seedling stage

DBM and other lepidopteran insects

  • Same as in vegetative stage

Head state

Nutrients

  • The third dose (33.3%) 50-60 days after transplanting and if they are long duration varieties third dose at 75-80 days after transplanting. Micronutrient deficiency should be corrected by foliar spray of particular micronutrient.

Source: NIPHM, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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