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Redgram: Crop Stage-wise IPM

Management Activity

Pre- sowing*


Common cultural practices:
• Timely sowing should be done.
• Field sanitation, rogueing
• Deep summer ploughing to control juveniles and adults of nematodes, and resting stages of insect pests.
• Sow the ecological engineering plants
• Sow/plant sorghum/maize/bajra in 4 rows all around cumin crop as a guard/barrier crop
• Destroy the alternate host plants
• Apply manures and fertilizers as per soil test recommendations
• Follow crop rotation with non host crops such as rice, maize, sorghum, tobacco or castor
Nutrients • Nutrients should be applied based on the soil test report and recommendations for the particular agro-climatic zone.
• Apply well decomposed FYM @ 4.0 t/acre or vermicompost @ 2.0 t/acre treated with Trichoderma 4 Kg/acre at the time of field preparation.
• Apply vermicompost and FYM at 1 week and 3-4 weeks before sowing, respectively.
Weeds • At the time of fi eld preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique i.e. pre sowing irrigation followed by shallow tillage after emergence of weeds.
Soil borne pathogens nematodes and resting stages of insects Cultural control:
• Deep ploughing of fi elds during summer to control nematodes and Helicoverpa.
• Three summer ploughings at 10 days interval reduce juvenile population of pests.
• Soil solarization: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm)
thickness for three weeks before sowing for soil solarization which will help in
reducing the soil borne pests.
• Conserve the entamopathogenic fungi such as Paecilomyces lilacinus

Seed sowing/seedling*


Common cultural practices:
• Use resistant/tolerant varieties
• Select seeds from disease free fields
• Grow pigeon pea intercropped or mixed with cereal crops like sorghum.
• Use certified and weed seed free seeds
Nutrients • Seed treatment should be done with Rhizobium and VAM (AMF)/PSB (Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria ) cultures each @ 240 g/acre.
• Fertilizers should be applied on soil test basis. Generally, it is recommended to apply 10 to 12 Kg nitrogen (N), 20 to 30 Kg phosphorous (P) and 12 to 18 Kg potassium (K) per acre as basal dose.
• In sulphur and zinc deficient areas, apply sulphur @ 10 to 12 Kg/ acre and zinc
sulphate @ 10 Kg/acre in soil at the time of sowing.
Weeds • Always use certified and weed free seeds.
• Adopt recommended agronomic practices with respect to timely sowing, row spacing, plant population etc. to obtain the healthy plant stand.
• Intercropping with suitable crops as per regional recommendations.
Wilt, stem blight, dry root rot Cultural control:
• Select a field with no previous record of wilt for at least past 3 years.
• Uproot the wilted plant and use them as firewood or destroy them.
• Avoid sowing redgram in fields with low-lying patches that are prone to water
logging.
Biological control:
• Trichoderma viride 1% WP@ 8 g/Kg seed and @ 200 g/acre for soil treatment (wilt & dry root rot)
Chemical Control:
• Carboxin 37.5% + thiram 37.5% DS @ 4 g/Kg seed and 200 g/acre for soil treatment (wilt, stem blight and dry root rot)
• Thiophanate methyl 70% WP @ 572 g in 300-400 l of water/acre (wilt)

Vegetative stage*


Common cultural practices:
• Collect and destroy crop debris
• Judicious use of fertilizers
• Provide irrigation at critical stages of the crop
• Avoid water logging
• Avoid any stress to the crop as much as possible
• Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed
Common mechanical practices:
• Collect and destroy disease infected and insect infested plant parts
• Collect and destroy eggs and early stage larvae
• Handpick the older larvae during early stages of the crop
• Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are found on stem and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
• Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
• Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
• Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
• Erect bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow,
common mynah etc.
• Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
Common biological practices:
• Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
• Augmentative release of natural enemies
Nutrients • Correct micronutrient deficiency if any in standing crop.
Weeds • The crop should be maintained weed free initially for 6-8 weeks by following timely hoeing and weeding by using power hand tiller/ or manual tools, twice at 20 and 45 days after sowing.
• Mulches like straw, plastic, etc. can be used in between the rows to suppress the weed growth.
Leaf webber • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Cultural control:
• Growing intercrops such as marigold, castor etc.
Bihar hairy caterpillar** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Cultural control:
• Pre-monsoon deep ploughing (two/three times) to expose the hibernating pupae to sunlight and predatory birds.
• Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid season drought to prevent pre-harvest infestation.
Aphid** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Mealybug** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Scale** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Dry root rot**, wilt, stem blight • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
• Same as in seedling stage
Pigeon pea sterility mosaic (PSM), mung bean yellow disease** (MBYD) • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Cultural control:
• The spacing between the lines should be maintained at 30 to 40 cm.
Mechanical control:
• Destroy sources of sterility mosaic inoculum.
• Use yellow sticky traps for the control of whitefly insect vector of MBYD.

Flowering


• Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Gram pod borer, spotted pod borer • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Cultural control:
• Growing trap crop like marigold on the borders and in between rows as intercrop.
• Their flowers shall attract oviposition which can be plucked and disposed off .
• Follow ridge planting + cover crops like soybean, cowpea, blackgram, greengram, moth bean.
• Raise one row of sunfl ower as intercrop for every 9 rows of pigeon pea.
Biological control:
• Bacillus thuringiensis sero var kurstaki (3a, 3b, 3c) 5% w WP @ 400-500 g/acre in 200-400 l of water or Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, serotype h-CA, 3b, strain z-52 @200-300 g/acre or NPV of Helicoverpa armigera 2.0% AS @100-200 ml/acre in 200-300l of water or NPV of Helicoverpa armigera 2.0% AS strain no. GBS/HNPV-01 @ 100-200 ml/acre in 200-300 l of water or Bio-tech international strain no. IBH/HV-9 @ 100-200 ml/acre in 200-300 l of water or Indore bio-tech input & research strain no. IBL-17268 @ 100-200 ml/acre in 200-300 l of water. Azadiractin 0.03% (300 ppm) neem oil based WSP @ 1000-2000 g in 200-300 l of water/acre
Chemical control:
• Benfuracarb 40% EC @ 1000 ml in 200 l of water/acre or chlorantraniliprole18.5%SC @ 60 ml in 200-300 l of water/acre or dimethoate 30% EC @ 494.8 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or emamectin benzoate 5% SG @ 88 g in 200-300 l of water/acre or flubendiamide 39.35% M/M SC @ 40 ml in 200 l of water/acre or indoxacarb14.5% SC @ 141-160 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or indoxacarb15.8% EC @ 133 ml/acre in 200-280 l of water or lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC @160-200 ml in 160-240 l of water/ acre or lufenuron 5.4% EC @ 240 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or methomyl 40% SP @ 300-450 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or monocrotophos 36% SL @ 500 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or quinalphos 20% AF @ 1000 ml in 300-400 l of water/acre or quinalphos 25% EC @ 560 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or quinalphos 1.5% DP @ 9320 g/acre or spinosad 45.0% SC @ 50-64 ml in 320-400 l of water/acre or ethion 50% SC @ 200-400 ml in 200-400 l of water /acre
Pod fly • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Chemical control:
• Dimethoate 30% EC @ 264 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or monocrotophos 36% SL @ 250 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or quinalphos 25% EC @ 560 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or lufenuron 5.4% EC @ 240 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or lambdacyhalothrin 5% EC @ 160-200 ml in 160-240 l of water/acre or carbaryl 10% DP @ 8000 g/acre
Leaf webber • Same as in vegetative stage
Bihar hairy caterpillar** • Same as in vegetative stage
Blister beetle** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
White bug** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Scale** • Same as in vegetative stage
Mealybug** • Same as in vegetative stage
Pigeon pea sterility mosaic disease, mung bean yellow disease** • Same as in vegetative stage

Reproductive (pod development)

Nutrients • Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest.
Weeds • Remove left over weeds before shedding of seeds to prevent weed seed spread in field.
Gram pod borer • Same as in flowering stage
Pod fly • Same as in flowering stage
Leaf webber • Same as in flowering stage
Spotted pod borer • Same as in flowering stage
Plume moth • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Chemical control:
• Carbaryl 10% DP @ 8000 g/acre or monocrotophos 36% SL @ 250 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
Bihar hairy caterpillar** • Same as in vegetative stage
Blister beetle** • Same as in vegetative stage
White bug** • Same as in vegetative stage
Pod weevil** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Pod sucking bug** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Scale** • Same as in vegetative stage
Mealybug** • Same as in vegetative stage
Pigeon pea sterility mosaic disease, mung bean yellow disease** • Same as in vegetative stage
Note: The pesticide dosages and spray fluid volumes are based on high volume sprayer.
*Apply Trichoderma viride/harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed/seedling/planting material treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
** Pests of regional significance

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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