অসমীয়া   বাংলা   बोड़ो   डोगरी   ગુજરાતી   ಕನ್ನಡ   كأشُر   कोंकणी   संथाली   মনিপুরি   नेपाली   ଓରିୟା   ਪੰਜਾਬੀ   संस्कृत   தமிழ்  తెలుగు   ردو

Chill Crop stage wise IPM

Management

Activity

Nutrients

  • Add well rotten farm yard manure (FYM) @ 25 t/acre or vermicompost @ 4 t/acre. Incorporate at the time of field preparation 1 week (vermicompost) or 2 to 3 weeks (FYM) before transplanting

Weeds

  • At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique to minimize the weeds menace in field
  • Keep the nursery weed free by hand weeding

Soil borne fungus, nematodes, and resting stages of insects

Cultural control:

  • Deep summer ploughing of fields to control nematodes, Helicoverpa, and Spodoptera.
  • Soil solarization: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm) thickness for three weeks before sowing for soil solarization which will help in reducing the soil borne pests

Biological control:

  • Apply neem cake @ 100 kg/acre at the time of transplanting for reducing nematodes and borer damage.

Chemical control:

  • In nematode severe area apply carbofuran 3% CG granules @ 26,640 g/acre

Damping off

Cultural control:

  • Excessive watering and poorly drained areas of field should be avoided
  • Use raised beds: more than 15 cm height is better for water drainage.
  • Raise seedlings in pro-trays/plug trays.

Chemical control:

  • Seed treatment with captan 75 WS @ 25- 30 g/kg seed
  • Soil drenching with captan 75% WP @ 1000 g in 400 l of water/acre or

Seed Sowing/ Transplanting stage

Nutrients

  • Before sowing, soil testing should be done to find out the soil fertility status. Nutrient should be provided as per soil test recommendations. Generally, for rainfed chilli: 60: 30: 50: Kg N: P: Kg/ha should be applied as basal dose. For irrigated chilli: 60: 60: 30 Kg N: P: K/ha should be applied as a basal dose.
  • Based on soil test for micronutrient, the deficient micronutrient should be applied in soil at sowing / transplanting. In Zn deficient areas, zinc sulphate @ 25 kg/acre should be applied at last ploughing.
  • Biofertilizers: For seed treatment with Azotobacter and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria (PSB) cultures @ 8-10 g/kg seed
  • For seedling root dip treatment with Azotobacter and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria (PSB) cultures @ 250 g/acre seedlings

Weeds

  • Keep the nursery weed free by hand weeding

Vegetative stage

Nutrients

  • In rainfed chilli, apply 25 kg N/acre as top dressing with rains.
  • In irrigated chilli, first top dressing of 20 kg N + 10 kg K/acre should be done at 45 days after planting.
  • Second top dressing of 20 kg N + 10 kg K/acre should be done at 60 days after planting.
  • Third top dressing of 20 kg N + 10 kg K/acre should be done at 75 days after planting.
  • Micronutrient deficiency should be corrected by foliar spray of particular micronutrient.
  • Apply NAA @ 50 ppm (1 ml in 4.5 lit of water ) 2-3 times at 15 days interval to minimize flower drop

Weeds

  • Field should be weed free up to 30 days to enable the crop to cover up.
  • After transplanting 2 hand weedings are required.
  • Mulching with black Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) sheets of 30 micron thickness between the rows by burying both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm as well as drip irrigation will avoid weed growth.

Thrips

Cultural control:

  • Inter crop with Sesbania grandiflora, to provide barrier which regulate the thrips population.
  • Do not follow chilli and onion mixed crop – both the crops attacked by thrips
  • Sprinkle water over the seedlings to check the multiplication of thrips

Biological control:

  • Conserve predators such as predatory mite (Amblyseius swirskii), insidious flower bugs (Orius insidiosus) etc.
  • Apply neem cake to the beds @ 100 kg/acre in two split doses at the time of planting and 30 days after transplanting

Chemical control:

  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid 70% WS @ 400-600 g/100 kg seed.
  • Apply fipronil 5% SC @ 320-400 ml in 200 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9% CS @ 200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC @ 120 ml in 160-240 l of water/acre or spinosad 45% SC @ 64 ml in 200 l of water/acre or thiacloprid 21.7% SC @ 90-120 ml in 200 l of water/acre or acetamiprid 20% SP @ 20- 40 g in 200-240 l of water/acre or emamectin benzoate 5% SG @ 80 g in 200 l of water/acre or carbaryl 50% WP @ 800 g in 200-400 l of water/acre or carbofuran 3% CG @ 13320 g/acre or ethion 50% EC @ 600-800 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or fenpropathrin 30% EC @ 100-136 ml in 300-400 l of water/acre or methomyl 40% SP @ 300-450 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or oxydemeton-methy 25% EC @ 400 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or phorate 10% CG @ 4000 g/acre or phosalone 35% EC @ 800 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or indoxacarb 14.5% + acetamiprid 7.7% W/W SC @ 160-200 ml in 200 l of water/acre

Aphids

Biological control:

  • Conserve parasitoids such as Aphidius colemani, Diaeretiella spp. Aphelinus spp. etc.
  • Conserve predators such as anthocorid bugs/pirate bugs (Orius spp.), mirid bugs, syrphid/hover flies, green lacewings (Mallada basalis and Chrysoperla carnea), predatory coccinellids (Stethorus punctillum), staphylinid beetle (Oligota spp.), predatory cecidomyiid fly (Aphidoletis aphidimyza) and predatory gall midge, (Feltiella minuta), earwigs, ground beetles, rove beetles, spiders, wasps etc.

Chemical control:

  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid 70% WS @ 400-600 g/100 kg seed.
  • Apply fipronil 5% SC @ 320-400 ml in 200 l of water/acre or oxydemeton methyl 25% EC @ 640 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or carbofuran 3% CG @ 13320 g/acre or carbosulfan 25% EC @ 320-400 ml in 200- 400 l of water/acre or phorate 10% CG @ 4000 g/acre or phosalone 35% EC @ 800 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or quinalphos 25% GEL @ 400 g in 200-400 l of water/acre or quinalphos 25% EC @ 400 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or quinalphos 1.5% DP @ 8000 g/acre
  • Alternate chemicals at 10 days interval till the end of aphid population

Yellow mite/other mites

Cultural control:

Chilli crop bordered by two rows of maize at every 0.5 acre area (31.2 x 60 sqm).

Biological control:

  • Conserve the predators such as predatory mite (Amblyseius ovalis), predatory bug (Orius spp.), spiders etc.
  • If the incidence of mites is low, spray neem seed powder extract 4% at 10 days interval

Chemical control:

  • Spray dimethoate 30% EC @ 396 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or emamectin benzoate 5% SG @ 80 g in 200 l of water/acre or fenazaquin 10% EC @ 500 ml in 160-240 l of water/acre or fenpropathrin 30% EC @ 100-136 ml in 300-400 l of water/acre or fenpyroximate 5% EC @ 120-240 ml in 120-200 l of water/acre or milbemectin 1% EC @ 130 ml in 200 l of water/acre or propargite 57% EC @ 600 ml in 200-250 l of water/acre or spiromesifen 22.9% SC@ 160 ml in 200- 300 l of water/acre or chlorfenapyr 10% SC @ 300-400 ml in 200 l of water/acre or diafenthiuron 50% WP @ 240 g in 200-300 l of water/acre or ethion 50% EC @ 600- 800 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or hexythiazox 5.45% W/W EC @ 120-200 ml in 250 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC @ 120 ml in 160-240 l of water/acre or or oxydemeton-methy 25% EC @ 800 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or phorate 10% CG @ 4000 g/acre or phosalone 35% EC @ 514 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or quinalphos 25% EC @ 600 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre

Tobacco caterpillar

Cultural control:

  • Field sanitation and roguing
  • Castor can be grown as a trap crop along the field border to attract the egg laying female adult moths (collect and destroy the laid egg masses and gregarious neonates)
  • Pest repellant plants: Ocimum/Basil
  • Setting up light traps for collecting adults @ 1/acre
  • Erecting of bird perches for encouraging predatory birds such as king crow, mynah etc.
  • Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moth activity. Replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks

Biological control:

  • Spray NSKE 5 % against eggs and first instar larva.
  • Spray B. t. var gallariae @ 600-800 g in 400 l of water/acre
  • Conserve parasitoids such as Trichogramma chilonis (egg), Tetrastichus spp. (egg), Telenomus spp. (egg), Chelonus blackburni (egg-larval), Carcelia spp. (larval-pupal), Campoletis chlorideae (larval), Eriborus argentiopilosus (larval), Microplitis sp etc.
  • Conserve predators such as Chrysoperla carnea, coccinellids, King crow, common mynah, wasp, dragonfly, spider, robber fly, reduviid bug, praying mantis, fire ants, big eyed bugs (Geocoris sp), pentatomid bug (Eocanthecona furcellata), earwigs, ground beetles, rove beetles etc.

Chemical control

  • Apply emamectin benzoate 5% SG @ 80 g in 200 l of water/acre or fipronil 5% SC @ 320-400 ml in 200 l of water/acre or flubendiamide 39.35% M/M SC @ 40-50 ml in 200 l of water/acre or indoxacarb 14.5% SC @ 133-160 ml in 120-240 l of water/acre or lufenuron 5.4% EC @ 240 ml in 200 l of water/acre or spinosad 45% SC @ 64 ml in 200 l of water/acre or novaluron 10 % EC @ 150 ml in 200 l of water/acre or chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 60 ml in 200 l of water/acre or deltamethrin 2.8% EC @ 160-200 ml in 160-240 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9% CS @ 200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC @ 120 ml in 160-240 l of water/acre or methomyl 40% SP @ 300-450 ml in 200- 400 l of water/acre or thiodicarb 75% WP @ 250.4-400 g in 200 l of water/acre or indoxacarb 14.5% + acetamiprid 7.7% W/W SC @ 160-200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or pyriproxyfen 5% + fenpropathrin 15% EC @ 200-300 ml in 200-300 l of water/acre

Gram pod borer

Cultural control:

  • Field sanitation and roguing
  • Erecting suitable physical barriers such as nylon nets
  • Growing intercrops such as cowpea, onion, maize, coriander, urdbean in 5 or 4:1 ratio
  • Guard crop sorghum or maize in 4 rows all around cotton crop as guard crop.
  • Rotate the chilli crop with a non-host cereal crop, cucurbit, or cruciferous vegetable.
  • Repellant plants: Ocimum/Basil
  • Erecting of bird perches for encouraging predatory birds such as king crow, mynah, and drongo etc.
  • Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity. Replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks
  • Use of ovipositional trap crops such as marigold @ 100 plants/acre 1 row of marigold for every 18 rows of chilli and collection of larvae from flowers (marigold seedling of 45 days should be planted along with chilli transplanting)

Biological control:

  • Release of egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum @ 50,000 adults (in the form of parasitized card)/acre/week commenced right from the start of flower initiation to till end of the crop, tie the egg cards on the stick placed through out the field at 4-5 m apart, in the evening, a day prior to the emergence of adult.
  • Conserve parasitoids such as Tetrastichus spp. (egg), Telenomus spp. (egg), Campoletis chlorideae (larval) etc.
  • Conserve predators such as Chrysoperla carnea, coccinellids, King crow, common mynah, wasp, dragonfly, spider, robber fly, reduviid bug, praying mantis, fire ants, big eyed bugs (Geocoris sp), pentatomid bug (Eocanthecona furcellata), earwigs, ground beetles, rove beetles etc.

Chemical control:

  • Seed treatment with thiamethoxam 30% FS @ 7 g/kg seed
  • Apply emamectin benzoate 5% SG @ 80 g in 200 l of water/acre or fipronil 5% SC @ 320-400 ml in 200 l of water/acre or flubendiamide 39.35% M/M SC @ 40-50 ml in 200 l of water/acre or indoxacarb 14.5% SC @ 133-160 ml in 120-240 l of water/acre or lufenuron 5.4% EC @ 240 ml in 200 l of water/acre or spinosad 45% SC @ 64 ml in 200 l of water/acre or novaluron 10 % EC @ 150 ml in 200 l of water/acre or chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 60 ml in 200 l of water/acre or deltamethrin 2.8% EC @ 160-200 ml in 160-240 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9% CS @ 200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC @ 120 ml in 160-240 l of water/acre or methomyl 40% SP @ 300-450 ml in 200- 400 l of water/acre or thiodicarb 75% WP @ 250.4-400 g in 200 l of water/acre or indoxacarb 14.5% + acetamiprid 7.7% W/W SC @ 160-200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or pyriproxyfen 5% + fenpropathrin 15% EC @ 200-300 ml in 200-300 l of water/acre

Choeanephora blight

Cultural control:

  • Adopt recommended spacing to maintain adequate air circulation.
  • Grow resistant varieties.

Chemical control:

  • Spray captan 75% WP @ 800 g in 400 l of water/acre

Die back and fruit ro

Cultural control:

  • Production of pathogen-free planting materials is the key control measure used to manage the disease.
  • Use healthy pathogen-free chilli seed
  • Early removal of affected plants will control the spread of the diseases.
  • Transplants should be kept clean by controlling weeds and solanaceous volunteers in the vicinity of the transplant houses
  • Stagnation of water should not be allowed in nursery beds and fields in order to avoid fungal infection. The field should have good drainage and be free from infected plant debris.

Chemical control:

  • For die back and fruit rot spray benomyl 50% WP @ 80 g in 240 l of water/acre or captan 75% WP @ 800 g in 400 l of water/acre or copper oxy chloride 50% WP @ 1000 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or difenoconazole 25% EC @ 50 ml in 200 l of water/acre or hexaconazole 2% SC @ 1200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or propineb 70% WP @ 200 g in 200-300 l of water/acre or tebuconazole 25% WG @ 200-300 g in 200 l of water/acre or zineb 75 % WP @ 600- 800 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or azoxystrobin 23% SC @ 200 ml in 200-300 l of water/acre or chlorothalonil @ 75% WP @ 320 g in 300 l of water/acre or kitazine 48% EC @ 80 ml in 200-300 l of water/acre or mancozeb 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300 l of water
  • For anthracnose and fruit rot apply captan 50% WG @ 600 g in 200 l of water/acre or captan 70% + hexaconazole 5% WP @ 200-400 g in 200 l of water/acre or copper sulphate 2.62% SC @ 400 ml in 200 l of water/acre or copper hydroxide 77% WP @ 500 ml in 200 l of water/acre

Mosaic

Cultural control:

  • Select healthy seed for planting.
  • Crop rotation with non-hosts.
  • Control perennial weed hosts.
  • Rogue out and destroy infected plants in early stages of infection.
  • Grow disease tolerant varieties.
  • Raise 4 rows of maize or sorghum as border crop to restrict the spread of aphid vectors.
  • Cover the seed bed with nylon net or paddy straw.

Chemical control:

  • For vector control
  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid 70% WS @ 10 g/kg of seed.
  • Apply fipronil 5% SC @ 320-400 ml in 200 l of water/acre

Powdery mildew

Chemical control:

  • Spray dinocap 48% EC @ 90 ml in 300 l of water/acre or fenarimol 12% EC @ 40 ml in 200-300 l of water/acre or flusilazole 40% EC @ 40-60 ml in 200 l of water/acre or sulphur 52% SC @ 800 ml in 160 l of water/acre or sulphur 80% WP @ 1252 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or azoxystrobin 23% SC @ 200 ml in 200-300 l of water/acre or benomyl 50% WP @ 80 g in 240 l of water/acre or hexaconazole 2% SC @ 1200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or tebuconazole 25% WG @ 200-300 g in 200 l of water/acre

Cercospora leaf spot

Chemical control:

  • Spray mancozeb 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300 l of water or zineb 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or copper oxy chloride 50% WP @ 1000 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or benomyl 50% WP @ 80 g in 240 l of water/acre or copper hydroxide 77% WP @ 500 ml in 200 l of water/acre

Bacterial leaf spot

Cultural control:

  • Field sanitation is important. Also seeds must be obtained from disease free plants.
  • Seeds should be collected from healthy fruits

Chemical control:

  • Spray streptomycin sulfate 9% + tetracycline hydrochloride 1% SP solution (streptocycline) 40-100 ppm in fields after the appearance of first true leaves. Two sprays of streptocycline, one before transplanting (nursery) and another after transplanting (main field)

Reproductive stage

Nutrients

  • Micronutrient deficiency should be corrected by foliar spray of particular micronutrient.

Weeds

  • Left over weeds should be removed from the field to avoid further spread of weed seeds.

Gram pod borer and Tobacco caterpillar

  • Same as in vegetative stage

Thrips

  • Same as in vegetative stage

Mites

  • Same as in vegetative stage

Die back & fruit rot

  • Same as in vegetative stage

Choeanephora blight

  • Same as in vegetative stage

Bacterial blight

  • Same as in vegetative stage

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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