Adenovirus is a type of virus that most commonly causes upper and lower respiratory infections. It can also cause a variety of other illnesses, including gastrointestinal infection, neurological infection, and eye infection. Its outbreaks can occur throughout the year and may spread more quickly in closed populations. Disease is usually mild and self-limiting. Severe disease is a possibility in immunocompromised patients or those with existing respiratory or cardiac disease. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.
Although, recombinant adenoviruses currently are used for a variety of purposes, including gene transfer in vitro, vaccination in vivo, and gene therapy. Several features of adenovirus biology have made such viruses the vectors of choice for certain of these applications.
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are members of the Adenoviridae family. The name derives from the initial isolation of the virus from human adenoids in 1953. Adenoviruses are medium-sized (70–100 nm), nonenveloped double-stranded DNA viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid.
Currently, there are 104 different HAdV types known, which have been classified into seven species A to G based on the percentage of guanine plus cytosine in their DNA and other biochemical and biophysical criteria.
Adenovirus infection in humans are generally caused by Adenoviruses types B, C, D, E and F. Specific serotypes are often associated with clinical syndromes. Adenovirus types 3, 4 and 7 are most commonly associated with acute respiratory illness. Adenovirus types 4 and 7 have been associated with more severe outcomes than other adenovirus types, particularly in people with weakened immune systems.
Children and immunocompromised patients or those with existing respiratory or cardiac disease, are at increased risk for infection. Adults who are in closed or crowded environments, are also at higher risk.
The incubation period for Adenovirus is 2–14 days.
Adenovirus infections are most contagious during the first few days of symptoms. Sometimes the virus can be shed (released from the body) for a long time after a person recovers from an adenovirus infection, especially among people who have weakened immune systems. This “virus shedding” usually occurs without any symptoms, even though the person can still spread adenovirus to other people.
Adenoviruses are usually spread from an infected person to others through
A presumptive case of ILI or SARI with
There is no specific treatment or approved antiviral medicine for people with adenovirus infection. Primary Prevention is the mainstay.
Clinical care of adenovirus infections includes treatment of symptoms and complications. Most adenovirus infections are mild and may only require care to help relieve symptoms.
Rest, plenty of fluids and over-the-counter pain medicines or fever reducers are advised to help relieve symptoms. To categories treatment:
For epidemic conjunctivitis, a cold compress and lubricants may provide some relief of discomfort. Patients who are seriously ill with persistent high fever, breathing problems, change in vision, severe dehydration etc. may need care in the hospital to help them recover.
Raising awareness of risk factors and educating people about the measures they can take to reduce exposure to the virus is the main prevention strategy. These include:
Non- pharmaceutical Interventions-(NPI)
NPIs include both actions that individuals and households can take (e.g. frequent hand washing, covering coughs and sneezes, and keeping a distance from sick people).
Personal NPIs include:
Environmental non-pharmaceutical interventions
Adenoviruses are resistant to many common disinfectants and can remain infectious for hours on environmental surfaces and medical instruments.
To prevent spread of adenoviruses, use of recommended & registered disinfectants like quaternary ammonium, hydrogen Peroxide, paracetic acid and hypochlorous acid on surfaces that is effective at killing adenoviruses and compatible with the surfaces and equipment is advised.
Disinfectants effective against norovirus should also be effective against adenoviruses. Follow guidelines of Infection Control Practices.
Maintain proper chlorine levels to prevent outbreaks: It is important to keep adequate levels of chlorine in swimming pools to prevent outbreaks of conjunctivitis caused by caused by adenoviruses.
In health care settings:
Last Modified : 4/18/2023