This programme meant to provide for the welfare of areas and people affected by mining related operations. The most productive mining areas in the country are largely areas inhabited by scheduled tribes. They also are mainly located in the areas covered by the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution. The PMKKKY is, therefore, very sharply focused on safeguarding the health, environment and economic conditions of the tribals and providing them with opportunities to benefit from the vast mineral resources that are extracted from the areas where they live.
The overall objective of PMKKKY scheme include
- to implement various developmental and welfare projects/programs in mining affected areas, and these projects/ programs will be complementing the existing ongoing schemes/projects of State and Central Government;
- to minimize/mitigate the adverse impacts, during and after mining, on the environment, health and socio-economics of people in mining districts; and
- to ensure long-term sustainable livelihoods for the affected people in mining areas.
The Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY) will be implemented by the District Mineral Foundations (DMFs) of the respective districts using the funds accruing to the DMF.
The Mines and Minerals (Development & Regulation) Amendment Act, 2015, mandated the setting up of District Mineral Foundations (DMFs) in all districts in the country affected by mining related operations. The Central Government has notified the rates of contribution payable by miners to the DMFs. In case of all mining leases executed before 12th January, 2015 (the date of coming into force of the Amendment Act) miners will have to contribute an amount equal to 30% of the royalty payable by them to the DMFs. Where mining leases are granted after 12.01.2015, the rate of contribution would be 10% of the royalty payable.
Using the funds generated by this contribution, the DMFs are expected to implement the PMKKKY. By these rates of contribution, it’s expected that with current level of royalty collection in the country, nearly Rs.6000 crore would be utilized for the implementation of PMKKKY in mining areas of different States.
The Central Government has issued a directive to the State Governments, under Section 20A of the MMDR Act, 1957, laying down the guidelines for implementation of PMKKKY and directing the States to incorporate the same in the rules framed by them for the DMFs.
Guidelines for Identification of affected areas and people to be covered under the PMKKKY
1. Affected areas
a. Directly affected areas – where direct mining-related operations such as excavation, mining, blasting, beneficiation and waste disposal (overburdened dumps, tailing ponds, transport corridors etc.), etc. are located.
- Villages and gram panchayats within which the mines are situated and are operational. Such mining areas may extend to neighboring village, block or district on even state.
- An area within such radius from a mine or cluster of mines as may be specified by the State Government, irrespective of whether this falls within the district concerned or adjacent district.
- Villages in which families displaced by mines have resettled/rehabilitated by the project authorities.
- Villages that significantly depend on the mining areas for meeting their economic needs and have usufruct and traditional rights over the project areas, for instance, for grazing, collection of minor forest produce etc. should be considered as directly affected areas.
b. Indirectly affected areas – Those areas where local population is adversely affected on account of economic, social and environmental consequences due to mining-related operations. The major negative impacts of mining could be by way of deterioration of water, soil and air quality, reduction in stream flows and depletion of ground water, congestion and pollution due to mining operations, transportation of minerals, increased burden on existing infrastructure and resources.
2. Affected people
- The following should include as directly affected persons:
- ‘Affected family’ as defined under Section 3 (c) of the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
- ‘Displaced family’ as defined under Section 3 (k) of the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
- Any other as appropriately identified by the concerned gram sabha.
- Persons affected by mining should include people who have legal and occupational rights over the land being mined, and also those with usufruct and traditional rights
- Affected families should be identified, as far as possible, in consultation with local/elected representatives of gram sabha.
- The DMF shall prepare and maintain an updated list of such affected persons/local communities.
Guidelines on Utilisation of Funds
High priority areas – at least 60% of PMKKKY funds to be utilized under these heads:
- Drinking water supply –centralized purification systems, water treatment plants, permanent/temporary water distribution network including standalone facilities for drinking water, laying of piped water supply system.
- Environment preservation and pollution control measures - effluent treatment plants, prevention of pollution of streams, lakes, ponds, ground water, other water sources in the region, measure for controlling air and dust pollution caused by mining operations and dumps, mine drainage system, mine pollution prevention technologies, and measures for working or abandoned mines and other air, water & surface pollution control mechanisms required for environment-friendly and sustainable mine development.
- Health care –the focus must be on creation of primary / secondary health care facilities in the affected areas. The emphasis should not be only on the creation of the health care infrastructure, but also on provision of necessary staffing, equipment and supplies required for making such facilities effective.
- Education – construction of school buildings, Additional class rooms, Laboratories, Libraries, Art and crafts room, Toilet blocks, Drinking water provisions Residential Hostels for students/teachers in remote areas,, sports infrastructure, engagement of teachers/other supporting staff, e-learning setup, other arrangement of transport facilities (bus/van/cycles/rickshaws/etc.) and nutrition related programs.
- Welfare of Women and Children - Special programmes for addressing problems of maternal and child health, malnutrition, infectious diseases, etc. can be taken up under the PMKKKY. f. Welfare of aged and disabled people – Special program for welfare of aged and disabled people.
- Skill development – skill development for livelihood support, income generation and economic activities for local eligible persons. The projects / schemes may include training, development of skill development center, selfemployment schemes, support to Self Help Groups and provision of forward and backward linkages for such self-employment economic activities.
- Sanitation– collection, transportation & disposal of waste, cleaning of public places, provision of proper drainage & Sewage Treatment Plant, provision for disposal of fecal sludge, provision of toilets and other related activities.
Other priority Areas – Up to 40% of the PMKKKY to be utilized under these heads
- Physical infrastructure - providing required physical infrastructure - road, bridges, railways and waterways projects.
- Irrigation - developing alternate sources of irrigation, adoption of suitable and advanced irrigation techniques.
- Energy and Watershed Development - Development of alternate source of energy (including micro-hydel) and rainwater harvesting system. Development of orchards, integrated farming and economic forestry and restoration of catchments.
- Any other measures for enhancing environmental quality in mining district.
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Source : PIB