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Horsegram Crop Stage Wise IPM

Management

Activity

Pre-sowing

 

Common cultural practices:

  • Crop rotation with non host crops
  • Timely sowing should be done
  • Field sanitation, rogueing
  • Destroy the alternate host plants
  • Apply manures and fertilizers as per soil test recommendations

Nutrients

  • Apply manures and fertilizers on soil test basis.

Weeds

  • Destroy weeds manually or by deep summer ploughing.

Soil borne pathogens Nematodes, Resting stage of insects

Cultural control:

  • Deep ploughing of fields during summer to manage juvenile population of nematodes and insect pests.
  • Soil solarization: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 75 gauge thickness for six weeks before sowing to reduce the soil borne pests.

Sowing/seedling

 

Common cultural practices:

  • Do summer ploughing
  • Timely sowing should be done
  • Solarize the field in summer to help reduce the inoculums.
  • Use resistant varieties
  • Select seed from disease free fields

Weeds

  • Always use certified and weed free seeds.
  • Timely sowing should be done.
  • Line sowing should be done to facilitate inter-culture operations.
  • Plant population should be maintained to its optimum right from its beginning to minimize the crop weed competition.
  • Adopt suitable crop rotation to minimize dodder and orobanche weeds

Vegetative stage

 

  • Avoid excess application of nitrogen
  • Adopt the ecological engineering strategy.
  • Conserve natural enemies
  • Remove and destroy weeds periodically
  • Removal and destruction of infected/infested plants

Common biological practices:

  • Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
  • Augmentative release of natural enemies

Nutrients

  • Correct micronutrient deficiency if any in standing crop.
  • Foliar application of Thiourea @500ppm solution twice: 1st spray during vegetative growth and 2nd spray at flowering stage. It is effective under all conditions.

Weeds

  • Keep field boundary & bunds free from weeds.
  • The crop field should be weed free initially for 4-5 weeks by following timely hoeing and weeding.
  • Inter-culture operation/hoeing should be done twice at 20 and 35 days after sowing-using hand hoe to remove all weeds in between the row.

Leafhopper

Biological control:

  • Spray neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) 5%.
  • Spray neem oil @ 1%

Little bean bug

Biological control:

  • Spray neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) 5%.
  • Spray neem oil @ 1%

Anthracnose, Bacterial leaf blight,Cercospora leaf spot

Cultural control:

  • Early planting i.e. immediately after onset of monsoon.
  • Grow crop on bower system to avoid soil contact.
  • Maintain proper drainage in the field.

Powdery mildew

Cultural control:

  • Bower system (maintain gapping) of cropping reduces the disease incidence

Root rot

Cultural control:

  • Plant in well-draining soils.
  • Prepare seed beds to enhance rapid germination
  • Proper irrigation is provided to prevent flooding and saturated soil conditions.
  • Soil amendment with farm yard manure @ 5 tonnes/acre

Mosaic complex

  • See the common cultural practices

Flowering

Pod borer

Cultural control:

  • Follow the intercropping systems like horsegram +maize, horsegram+ finger millet

Biological control:

  • Conserve and augment common predators and parasitoids

Reproductive (pod development)

Pod borer

Cultural control:

  • Follow the intercropping systems like horsegram +maize, horsegram+ finger millet

Biological control:

  • Conserve and augment common predators and parasitoids

Nutrients

Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest.

Weeds

Remove left over weeds to prevent weed seed spread in field.

Source: NIPHM; Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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