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Fenugreek Crop Stage-Wise IPM

Management

Activity

Pre-sowing

 

Common cultural practices:

  • Deep ploughing of fields during summer to control soil borne pathogens and weeds.
  • Soil solarization: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 75 gauge thickness for six weeks during summer months . It will help in reducing the soil-borne pathogens, insect pests and weeds.
  • Timely and line sowing should be done.
  • Field sanitation, rogueing
  • Destroy the alternate host plants
  • Soil test based application of manures and fertilizers.
  • Plant tall border crops like maize, sorghum for the management of mites and thrips.
  • Follow crop rotation of non-host crops like cereal crops for 3 years.
  • Adopt ecological engineering by growing the attractant, repellent, and trap crops around the field bunds.

Nutrients

  • Get the soil sample tested and apply nutrients based on soil test report. Soil is brought to fine tilth by 2-3 ploughing with harrow or plough.
  • Incorporate 4 to 5 tonnes of Farm Yard Manure per acre in soil 2-3 weeks before sowing.

Weeds

  • Solarisation of soil during summer reduces weed infestation

Sowing

Nutrients

  • Apply 8 kg N, 20 kg phosphorus and 20 kg potash per acre at the time of sowing as basal dose.

Soil borne fungus, resting stages of insects and weeds

Cultural control:

  • Soil solarization should be followed.

Biological control:

  • Apply neem cake @ 80 Kg/acre at the time of sowing for reducing borer damage as well as to reduce the soil borne diseases while preparing the nurseries.

Root rot and collar rot

Cultural control:

  • Avoid excessive watering
  • Use raised beds: more than 15 cm height is better for water drainage

Damping off

Cultural control:

  • Avoid excessive watering
  • Follow crop rotation

Biological control:

  • Apply neem cake @ 80 Kg/acre at the time of sowing for reducing the disease
  • Soil application: Apply Trichoderma viride @ 2kg/100kg of FYM/acre.

Weeds

  • Sowing should be done in lines to facilitate hoeing and weeding operations during vegetative stage.

Diseases and insect pests

  • Select resistant varieties.

Vegetative stage

 

Common cultural practices:

  • Avoid water stress and water stagnation conditions.
  • Collect and destroy diseased and insect infected plant parts.
  • Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering

Common mechanical practices:

  • Collection and destruction of eggs of pests and early stage larvae
  • Use yellow/blue pan water/ sticky traps for aphids @ 4-5 trap/acre.

Common biological practices:

  • Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
  • Augmentative release of natural enemies.

Nutrients

  • Apply second half of N as top dressing in two splits i.e. 4 kg per acre at 25-30 days after sowing and remaining 4 kg at 40-45 days after sowing.

Weeds

  • The crop should be kept free from weeds for proper growth and development of plants. Generally, 2-3 hand weeding are required to keep the weeds under control.
  • In drilled crop light intercultural operation is beneficial. 1st weeding and hoeing should be done at 25-30 days after sowing and 2nd weeding at one month after 1st weeding.

Aphids

  • See common cultural and biological practices.

Cultural control:

  • If aphid population is limited to just a few shoots then the infested plant can be pulled out

Biological control

  • Conserve and augment lady bird beetles and lacewings.
  • Spraying with tobacco decoction (1 kg tobacco boiled in 10 l of water for 30 minutes and making up to 30 l + 100 g soap).
  • Insecticidal soaps or oils such as neem or NSKE 5% are usually the best method of control

Leaf miner

Cultural control:

  • Avoid excess use of nitrogen.

Biological control:

  • Conservation of natural enemies.
  • Spray NSKE 5%.

Stem fly

Cultural control:

  • Follow crop rotation Biological control
  • Apply neem cake @ 80 Kg/acre at the time of sowing for reducing damage

Lucerne weevil

Cultural control:

  • Follow crop rotation Biological control
  • Apply neem cake @ 80 Kg/acre at the time of sowing for reducing damage
  • Spray NSKE 5% or Neem oil 0.5 to 1% (max. 2%).

Mites

Cultural control:

  • Keep the field free of weeds
  • Remove and destroy infested crop residues

Biological control:

  • Spray NSKE (5%)

Thrips

Cultural control:

  • Use blue sticky traps/water pan traps 5/acre.

Cercospora leaf spot

Cultural control:

  • Follow field sanitation.

Charcoal rot

Cultural control:

  • Organic soil amendments such as the addition of manure or neemcake can be used to reduce levels of inoculum in the soil
  • Follow crop rotation

Powdery mildew

Cultural control:

  • Use adequate spacing when planting to avoid overcrowding

Mosaic

Cultural control:

  • Manage the vector by adopting common practices for the aphid.

Mechanical control:

  • The infected plants should be removed in the early stage of plant growth.
  • Remove weed host
  • Install yellow sticky traps 4-5 per acre.

Rust

Cultural control:

  • Balanced use of manures and fertilizers.
  • Uproot the alternate host.

Downy mildew

Cultural control:

  • Use adequate spacing when planting to avoid overcrowding

Fusarium wilt

Cultural control:

  • Avoid excessive watering
  • Follow crop rotation

Biological control:

  • Apply neem cake @ 80 Kg/acre at the time of sowing for reducing the disease
  • Soil application: Apply Trichoderma viride 2kg/100kg of FYM/acre.

Reproductive/fruiting stage

Weeds

  • Remove weeds to prevent weed seed spread in field.

Pests and disease

  • Same as vegetative stage.

Spotted pod borer

Cultural control:

  • The avoidance of broad-spectrum pesticides prior to flowering may help conserve natural enemies; however, beneficial insects are unlikely to control populations above about 10 per square metre.
  • Follow common mechanical and biological practices

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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