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Minimum Support Price

This topic covers about MSP, its evolution, determination of MSP and the present MSP offered to various agro products.

Minimum Support Price (MSP) is a form of market intervention by the Government of India to insure agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices. The minimum support prices are announced by the Government of India at the beginning of the sowing season for certain crops on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP). MSP is price fixed by Government of India to protect the producer - farmers - against excessive fall in price during bumper production years. The minimum support prices are a guarantee price for their produce from the Government. The major objectives are to support the farmers from distress sales and to procure food grains for public distribution. In case the market price for the commodity falls below the announced minimum price due to bumper production and glut in the market, government agencies purchase the entire quantity offered by the farmers at the announced minimum price.

Historical perspective of MSP

The Price Support Policy of the Government is directed at providing insurance to agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices. The minimum guaranteed prices are fixed to set a floor below which market prices cannot fall. Till the mid 1970s, Government announced two types of administered prices :

  • Minimum Support Prices (MSP)
  • Procurement Prices

The MSPs served as the floor prices and were fixed by the Government in the nature of a long-term guarantee for investment decisions of producers, with the assurance that prices of their commodities would not be allowed to fall below the level fixed by the Government, even in the case of a bumper crop. Procurement prices were the prices of kharif and rabi cereals at which the grain was to be domestically procured by public agencies (like the FCI) for release through PDS. It was announced soon after harvest began. Normally procurement price was lower than the open market price and higher than the MSP. This policy of two official prices being announced continued with some variation upto 1973-74, in the case of paddy. In the case of wheat it was discontinued in 1969 and then revived in 1974-75 for one year only. Since there were too many demands for stepping up the MSP, in 1975-76, the present system was evolved in which only one set of prices was announced for paddy (and other kharif crops) and wheat being procured for buffer stock operations.

Determination of MSP

In formulating the recommendations in respect of the level of minimum support prices and other non-price measures, the Commission takes into account, apart from a comprehensive view of the entire structure of the economy of a particular commodity or group of commodities, the following factors:-

  • Cost of production
  • Changes in input prices
  • Input-output price parity
  • Trends in market prices
  • Demand and supply
  • Inter-crop price parity
  • Effect on industrial cost structure
  • Effect on cost of living
  • Effect on general price level
  • International price situation
  • Parity between prices paid and prices received by the farmers.
  • Effect on issue prices and implications for subsidy

The Commission makes use of both micro-level data and aggregates at the level of district, state and the country. The information/data used by the Commission, inter-alia include the following :-

  • Cost of cultivation per hectare and structure of costs in various regions of the country and changes there in;
  • Cost of production per quintal in various regions of the country and changes therein;
  • Prices of various inputs and changes therein;
  • Market prices of products and changes therein;
  • Prices of commodities sold by the farmers and of those purchased by them and changes therein;
  • Supply related information - area, yield and production, imports, exports and domestic availability and stocks with the Government/public agencies or industry;
  • Demand related information - total and per capita consumption, trends and capacity of the processing industry;
  • Prices in the international market and changes therein, demand and supply situation in the world market;
  • Prices of the derivatives of the farm products such as sugar, jaggery, jute goods, edible/non-edible oils and cotton yarn and changes therein;
  • Cost of processing of agricultural products and changes therein;
  • Cost of marketing - storage, transportation, processing, marketing services, taxes/fees and margins retained by market functionaries; and
  • Macro-economic variables such as general level of prices, consumer price indices and those reflecting monetary and fiscal factors.

Source : Farmer Portal

Pricing policy for sugarcane

The pricing of sugarcane is governed by the statutory provisions of the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966 issued under the Essential Commodities Act (ECA), 1955. Prior to 2009-10 sugar season, the Central Government was fixing the Statutory Minimum Price (SMP) of sugarcane and farmers were entitled to share profits of a sugar mill on 50:50 basis. As this sharing of profits remained virtually unimplemented, the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966 was amended in October, 2009 and the concept of SMP was replaced by the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane. A new clause ‘reasonable margins for growers of sugarcane on account of risk and profits’ was inserted as an additional factor for working out FRP and this was made effective from the 2009-10 sugar season. Accordingly, the CACP is required to pay due regard to the statutory factors listed in the Control Order, which are

  • the cost of production of sugarcane;
  • the return to the grower from alternative crops and the general trend of prices of agricultural commodities;
  • the availability of sugar to the consumers at a fair price;
  • the price of sugar;
  • the recovery rate of sugar from sugarcane;
  • the realization made from sale of by-products viz. molasses, bagasse and press mud or their imputed value (inserted in December, 2008) and;
  • reasonable margins for growers of sugarcane on account of risk and profits (inserted in October, 2009).
States also announce a price called the State Advisory Price (SAP), which is usually higher than the SMP.

Crops covered

26 commodities are currently covered. They are as follows.

  • Cereals (7) - paddy, wheat, barley, jowar, bajra, maize and ragi
  • Pulses (5) - gram, arhar/tur, moong, urad and lentil
  • Oilseeds (8) - groundnut, rapeseed/mustard, toria, soyabean, sunflower seed, sesamum, safflower seed and nigerseed
  • Copra
  • De-husked coconut
  • Raw cotton
  • Raw jute
  • Sugarcane (Fair and remunerative price)
  • Virginia flu cured (VFC) tobacco

Minimum Support Price for 2016-17



MSP for 2015-16    (Rs per quintal)

MSP for 2016-17    (Rs per quintal)

Increase over previous year (Rs per quintal)








Grade 'A'





























Arhar (Tur)


4625 (includes Rs.200/- Bonus)

5050 (includes Rs.425/- Bonus)




4850 (includes Rs.200/- Bonus)

5225 (includes Rs.425/- Bonus)




4625 (includes Rs.200/- Bonus)

5000 (includes Rs.425/- Bonus)



Medium Staple *





Long Staple **




Groundnut in shell



4220 (includes Rs.100/- Bonus)


Sunflower seed



3950 (includes Rs.100/- Bonus)



Yellow and Black
2600 2775 (includes Rs.100/- Bonus) 175




5000 (includes Rs.100/- Bonus)





3825 (includes Rs.100/- Bonus)


RABI CROPS (To be marketed in 2016-17)













3500 ((includes bonus of Rs.75 per quintal)

4000 (includes bonus of Rs. 200 per quintal)


Masur (Lentil)


3400 (includes bonus of Rs.75 per quintal)

3950 (includes bonus of Rs.150 per quintal)





3700 (includes bonus of Rs.100 per quintal)





3700 (includes bonus of Rs.100 per quintal)













De-husked coconut










Sugarcane $





* Staple length (mm) of 24.5 -25.5 and Micronaire value of 4.3 -5.1

** Staple length (mm) of 29.5 -30.5 and Micronaire value of 3.5 -4.3

$ Fair and remunerative price

The Fair and Remunerative Price payable by sugar mills for 2015-16 sugar season has been fixed at Rs.230/- per quintal. This will be linked to a basic recovery rate of 9.5 percent, subject to a premium of Rs.2.42 per quintal for every 0.1 percentage point increase in recovery above that level.

Related resources

Sources : Farmer Portal, Union Budget Portal, Arthapedia

shivpal chouhan Jul 12, 2015 07:40 PM

How many crops given msp

Dattatraya Dukre Jul 18, 2015 06:57 AM

no suggetion i like that msp topic..

khansa sundus Aug 08, 2015 06:31 PM

it was very helpful for my economics project

J.S.Vishwakarma Sep 11, 2015 02:15 PM

I learn a lot from this article.I also want to know about public distribution system.

Avinash Darade Nov 30, 2015 09:11 AM

Thx for giving such a valuable information...

leela krishna Dec 06, 2015 10:05 AM

thanks for helping in my project

Ramesh N Gopale Jan 08, 2016 06:54 PM

Very descriptive & important information. All concept clear regarding to msp.

Sayan Maity May 12, 2016 09:36 PM

Is it possible to describe the same in Reagional languages like Bengali ?

Devaraj Jun 03, 2016 11:41 AM

It is use ful to all formers but msp of some crops is not inform so don't forget inform of msp of all croos

saravanan Jun 07, 2016 02:16 PM

Thanks for this valuable information sir. But as per commission for agri cost and price there were only 6 determinants followed by them while fixing MSP. And my second query is for sugarcane. Does it come under the purview of MSP Or fair and remunerative price ?

Viji Jun 07, 2016 05:39 PM

Yes in the case of sugarcane the remunerative price fixed is referred as FRP. Regarding the factors , the Commission keeps in mind the various Terms of Reference (ToR) given to CACP in 2009 which can be accessed at http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelcontent.aspx?relid=46638

sunil ms Jun 30, 2016 08:37 PM

why virginia flure cured tobacco (VFC) is mentioned here. is msp is available?

Viji Jul 01, 2016 10:35 AM

The Tobacco board recommends to the Central Government the minimum prices to be fixed for exportable Virginia tobacco with a view to avoiding unhealthy competition amongst the exporters.

itzme Aug 02, 2016 10:21 AM

I am surprised, how come rice is not covered under MSP?
How is distribution and price of rice (staple food of India) is controlled all over the world?

Viji Aug 02, 2016 11:03 AM

Its covered under Paddy...

neha Aug 03, 2016 02:55 PM

Thanks for msp detail but i have a little problem regarding msp.my problem is if government in india offers msp to farmers on some of the crops they produce.is it a blessing or cursh for the society?suggest some alternative to msp

Shubham yaduwanshi Aug 12, 2016 07:23 PM

How is distribution and price of wheat/Rice (staple food of India) is controlled all over the world?

madhav pyghan Aug 19, 2016 04:25 PM

Not pleasant to read on mobile /tan use bold front of letter.

Sagar Oct 09, 2016 09:31 PM

which govt agency buying the soyabean at msp rate?

Ashesh dwivedi Nov 05, 2016 10:00 PM

27 crops are in MSP regime

Laxman Mamuduru Nov 26, 2016 07:06 PM

Map are issued by apcp .. undertaking goi.
Started from 1965 onwards...it's a one of big thought to balance of demand and supply of goods...
These is reflects to balance of prices and economy

vipul Nov 30, 2016 11:10 AM

In above covered crop list under msp is 25 and u r saying 27 please confirm that. In sunda book of agriculture gives 24 crops only and In muniraj sing rathod book general agriculture given 27 crops. What is the final & confirm answer?

ashoka Jan 13, 2017 10:40 AM

It's a best guide us for eco.

ramveer singh Jan 17, 2017 07:25 PM

very very thanxxx...this information

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